In a context of increasing globalization, marked by the intensification of trade in a more competitive environment, the port sector in Morocco and in the world, has become an important lever for development and competitiveness of a country. The constitutional reforms undertaken by Morocco since the 2011 protests have modified legislative and institutional procedures, yet their real impact on governance needs to be assessed. Women in particular are rarely aware of their rights. Authenticity and Modernity Party The Legislative Women have been recruited since the early 1980s. In that year defectors from the OADP created the Democratic Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Démocratique, PSD), former members of the OAPD set up the Front of Democratic Forces (Front des Forces Démocratiques, FFD), and, in yet another secession from the MP line, the Democratic and Social Movement (Mouvement Démocratique et Social, MDS) separated from Aherdane’s MNP. Mohammed V’s son, Hassan II, who ruled from 1961 until 1999, maintained the facade of a constitutional monarchy, but he was the master of his realm. There are two parliamentary sessions a year, beginning in October and April. They also hear criminal cases involving petty offences. The conservative Independence Party trailed in third place with 43 seats. He earned a BA in law at Rabat-Agdal University and a PhD in law from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, where he wrote his thesis on EEC-Maghrib relations. Morocco. Constitutionality has a legitimizing role in Morocco, but so does monarchy. The backbone of policing is the Royal Gendarmerie, part of the Royal Armed Forces, which comes under the Ministry of the Interior when it acts as the administrative police and under the Ministry of Justice when it acts as the Judicial Police (Police Judiciare), investigating crimes, gathering evidence, and bringing alleged perpetrators to court. The death penalty (by firing squad) can be applied for aggravated murder, torture, armed robbery, arson, treason, desertion, and attempts on the king’s life; it also exists in the military courts. There are also specialized tribunals: a commercial court system that hears commercial cases involving large sums, with its own system of appeals; administrative courts that deal with initial cases involving the public authorities; independent audit courts that operate at the central and regional levels; and a separate Standing Tribunal of the Royal Armed Forces. After 1912, the Protectorate slowly negotiated an end to the capitulation system; the British were the last major power to agree to end protected status in the French zone in 1937, but not in the Spanish zone, where the capitulations were renounced only at independence, in 1956. This area of Morocco … The system relies heavily on university academic performance: half the trainees have a law degree, and the rest have higher qualifications, but 80 percent have had no previous professional experience. Based on the Alexandria Protocol of 1944, the League of Arab States – commonly referred to as the Arab League – was founded in Cairo on 22 March 1945. The first political parties were founded during the Protectorate, before World War II. However, basing his analysis on governance indicators such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators and components of the Arab Democracy Index, Benhlal points out that the practice of governance of Morocco is not as positive as claimed in the political discourse. Regions are administered by a Wali (governor), appointed by the King, and a regional council, elected by direct universal suffrage. This was a rolling process, and the final stage in 1930 saw the promulgation of the famous Berber Dahir, which was envisioned as a tidying-up process under which tribal qaids (administrators) would deal with minor criminal matters under French law and civil matters according to what the French defined as Berber customary law. A taoutiq judge (who handles notary issues and issues concerning minors), assisted by aduls (religiously-trained clerks), applies the personal law in the first-instance court. In Morocco, internal demands for institutional reform backed by popular support have become a major lever in assisting to establish good governance in the country since early 2011. A second generation of parties was founded between the late 1960s and early 1980s, the most repressive period of Hassan II’s rule. This can have the result of creating alternative legal solutions in certain areas. Four months after the parliamentary elections of 7 October 2016, Abdelilah Benkirane, leader of the winning Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD), was unable to form the coalition government required by law. Parts of the regions of Guelmim–al-Semara and Laayoune–Boujdour–Sakia al-Hamra and all of Oued Eddahab Lagouira are in the territory of Western Sahara. The bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Representatives (395 members), elected for five years by direct universal suffrage, and the House of Councillors (with a maximum of 120 members), elected for six years by a complicated system of indirect elections by local councils, professional organizations, and labour unions. Because of its history, Morocco has a dual legal system, under which civil legislation, based on the French code system, defines contract, commercial, administrative, and criminal law and provides the bases of codes of civil and criminal procedure, while Islamic law provides the basic structure governing personal, family, and succession issues. The acquired copyright protected images used on/as featured image of this page are: ©Hollandse Hoogte | ©Hollandse Hoogte | ©Fanack | ©Fanack | Fanack ©Fanack. According to Article 6 of the 2011 Constitution, the law ‘is the supreme expression of the will of the Nation’. OECD Public Governance Reviews; Open Government in Salé, Morocco OECD Public Governance Reviews This series includes international studies and country-specific reviews of government efforts to make the public sector more efficient, effective, innovative and responsive to citizens’ needs and expectations. This study analyses initiatives undertaken in Morocco to support the management of critical risks. In the early days after Moroccan independence, the Soviet Union supplied a large amount of military equipment, most of which is no longer in service. The judicial system was subjected to interference by the authorities in political cases, and dissidents were arrested, held incommunicado for long periods, and tortured. parliamentary elections of 7 October 2016, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, protesting the incorporation of the Western Sahara, Consultative Commission on Regionalization, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2011 US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in Morocco. The top level of local government is the region. The current Prime Minister is Abdelilah Benkirane of the moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party (Parti de la Justice et du Développement, PJD). In March 2017, the king appointed Saad Eddine el-Othmani, who is a member of PJD, to form the government. The corps of judges is also unrepresentative of Moroccan society. The other historic leader of the MP, Abdelkarim al-Khatib, founded the Popular Democratic and Constitutional Movement (Mouvement Populaire Constitutionel Démocratique, MPCD; 1967), which adopted an Islamist tone. The Military Full sessions are held in public. As a result, many were muted in their criticism and positioned themselves in the political centre. Morocco is the world’s largest exporter of phosphate, which is an industry controlled by the royal family and by the elite who monopolize larger, multi-sector industries and who are close associates of the mon… This has been used as the basis for a strong campaign to make Morocco the first Arab country formally to abolish the death penalty. The Navy is the poor relation of the services: it has some modern French-built frigates, but its main fleet consists of aging patrol and coastal craft that cannot prevent fast boat smuggling across the Mediterranean. FINAL DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION Comments are welcome by 31 August 2016: please provide comments to 2 This Report does not constitute … One of the new constitutional provisions is that the regional councils should be elected by universal suffrage (Article 135): how could a democratically self-governing Western Sahara coexist with authoritarian Morocco? The previous elections were held on 25 November 2011, but voter turnout was low (45 per cent), indicating the lack of trust in the electoral system. As under the French system, an investigating judge investigates serious offences and can remand a suspect into pre-trial custody. Both chambers debate the government’s programme, but only the House of Representatives can vote it down. In the 2016 elections, the results were close for the two main parties: the PJD won 125 of the 395 seats whereas the Authenticity and Modernity Party took 102. The general opinion of the judicial system is low, partly because there is such a high level of illiteracy. He notes an excessive focus on laws and institutional procedures that do not translate into the necessary transformation in the status of governance and the nature of the Moroccan political regime. Elected regional councils would control the local budget, supported by an Interregional Solidarity Fund. Transport planes are largely US-made. Islamic law too is codified, in the Mudawana. The Moroccan army is notable for its large number of personnel and high level of training. Most of the population cannot afford legal services, as the average lawyer’s fee is equivalent to two to four weeks of the minimum wage. HTF MI 'Morocco Insurance Industry - Governance, Risk and Compliance' report is the result of extensive research into the insurance regulatory framework in Morocco. There are three levels of jurisdiction. The Monarchy Please contact us in case of omissions concerning copyright-protected work. The law protects this right’. According to recent reports, Moroccan jihadists are continuing to join IS in Libya and are in... Morocco is still without a government. In partnership with the General Directorate of Territorial Collectivities (DGCT) and the Association of Regions of Morocco (ARM), TASHAROC wishes to study the … Ensuring governance reform in Morocco … Yet despite its relatively progressive orientation, the new Constitution maintains the monarch as the most important political actor, with his formal rights and legitimacy unchanged. As a result, Morocco is currently experiencing a difficult political situation, characterized by a general m... Stay up to date with the weekly newsletter! The concept of human rights has become a well-known and widely accepted term to use. The Government of Morocco has been criticized for a lack of effective resource governance, which has been mainly linked to an incomplete regulatory framework and insufficient disclosure policies (NRGI). Only one-quarter of judicial trainees are women, and 90 percent are from the cities, although only 55 percent of the population is urban. The military forces’ extensive combat experience in the Western Sahara has given them operational expertise in desert warfare and combined air-land warfare. The Air Force relies on older French planes, mainly Mirage F1-C and F1-E acquired in the 1970s and 1980s and American F-5E Tiger. OECD iLibrary. In 2018, military expenditure accounted for 3.1 per cent of GDP, compared with 3.2 per cent in both 2017 and 2016, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Royal family members claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad via his daughter Fatima, his son-in-law Ali Ibn Abu Talib, and their son Hassan. If the committee cannot agree, the House of Representatives has the last word. In 2003, terrorist crimes were added to the list, but the penalty has not been carried out since 1993 (although by August 2008 there were 150 prisoners on death row). Legal System Since coming to the throne, King Mohammed VI has emphasized that the rule of law is a fundamental underpinning of his concept of a constitutional monarchy. The Ministry of Justice recognizes that the level of judicial competence is generally low, a consequence of the poor training of judges by the National Institute of Judicial Studies, which lacks staff and resources, and because of shortcomings in court internships. It has not fought a conventional interstate war since the Algerian wars of the early 1960s. The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for over 200 countries and territories over the period 1996–2018, for six dimensions of governance:Voice and AccountabilityPolitical Stability and Absence of ViolenceGovernment EffectivenessRegulatory QualityRule of LawControl of Corruption The Worldwide Governance … Other posts, especially in the economic field, are filled by the King. This was a common model for early opponents of European imperialism in Africa and Asia. Communal and district courts hear personal-estate actions against residents of their jurisdiction, again, under a certain sum. … The King used the parties as a way to divide the political forces. The underlying reason seems to have been to provide a possible solution to the Western Sahara question. In criminal cases, there are court-appointed defence lawyers for indigent defendants who act pro bono, but there are no public defenders. Economy . It covers steps taken by central government and local authorities, research centres… Second-level jurisdiction includes courts of appeal from the first-instance courts and criminal cases involving serious offences. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. He used his constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister (the leader of the largest party) and to approve and promulgate laws vigorously, repeatedly dissolved Parliament, rewrote the constitution several times, and rigged elections in favour of his supporters. Similarly, although defendants are presumed innocent and have a legal right to a fair public trial with right of appeal, this is not always the case in practice, especially in political cases involving those protesting the incorporation of the Western Sahara. The national civilian police force is the National Security (Sûreté Nationale), which is an armed force of about 60,000, under the Ministry of the Interior. In February 2010, a royal directive outlined a plan to modernize and professionalize the National Security by improving the quality of recruits and reducing corruption, with increased investigation, prosecution, and training – including a human-rights component – for security personnel. Political Parties He could not resist European pressure and agreed to accept a protectorate, although the French authorities removed him as sultan. These historic nationalist parties still exist, though the PDI won no legislative seats since 2002. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are officially appointed by the King, but the government’s programme must be approved by a majority vote of the Chamber of Deputies after a debate in both parliamentary chambers. In partnership with the General Directorate of Territorial Collectivities (DGCT) and the Association of Regions of Morocco (ARM), TASHAROC wishes to study the possibilities of operationalising the recommendations from the 1st national conference on advanced regionalisation for citizen participation, with the British … Good governance The constitution, which entered into force in 2011, establishes more stringent requirements in terms of good governance and the performance of public institutions. The latter was first enacted in 1957 and modified in 2004 and is by far the most controversial (see Women). Article 20 of the new constitution in 2012 states, ‘Right to life is the first right for every human being. As a political official, the … Further experience has come from participating in peace-keeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Serbia, and Ivory Coast. The form of a constitutional monarchy was retained, and, towards the end of Hassan II’s reign and after the succession of his son Mohammed VI in 1999, the repression was eased. One model seems to have been the system of regional government in Spain; when these structures were outlined in the 2011 Constitution, Article 140 spoke of the principle of subsidiarity, a typically European Union concept that refers to policies being handled by the smallest, lowest, or least centralized level of authority. Morocco ; Home; RELATED. An overview of human rights in Morocco. The Communist Party was legalized in 1937 and grew through the trade unions. By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance, the … Most significantly, under this new model the Saharan provinces would be brought together into two regions rather than shared between three provinces that also included parts of pre-1975 Morocco. Increasing European hegemony led religiously inspired nationalists to overthrow him and replace him with one of his brothers, Abdelhafid. There are enormous difficulties to realizing it. The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments.

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