[174][175] On 10 February, a Turkish T129 ATAK attack helicopter crashed with both crew members being killed. He then started an investigation into the students and threatened to expel them from the university. [10] He was one of the founders of the French language Journal of Palestine Studies called La revue d'étude palestinienne. [69] Turkey intensified its shelling later, while People's Protection Units (YPG) stated that 70 shells had been fired overnight. They are shown in the film stepping on the female YPG fighter's breasts. Those killed included two pregnant women. La villa des cœurs brisés – As Lakhdar. [84] Many houses, farms, and other private property belonging to those that fled the conflict have been seized or looted by the SNA. The alliance was formed from 19 different groups, some of which were previously affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood of … [377], On 19 February 2018, Turkish authorities announced that all protests, meetings, rallies, and concerts held in Turkey's capital Ankara will be prohibited for the duration of the operation. [247] Many were also critical of the deeply conservative and religious policies of the TFSA units. [191] The Turkish government stated on 28 February that the United Nation's recent Syrian ceasefire resolution didn't cover Afrin, and that Turkey wasn't a part of the Syrian conflict. [277][278][279] The clashes left 25 fighters dead. [80], Turkey has detained over 800 people for social media posts and protesters who opposed the offensive. [52][59][63] Other reported war crimes include the mutilation of a female corpse by SNA fighters,[73] the killing of civilians due to indiscriminate shelling by Turkish forces,[74] the use of chemical gas by the Turkish Army,[75] and the indiscriminate shooting of refugees fleeing from the conflict area into Turkey by the Gendarmerie General Command. He also served as Under Secretary General of the League of Arab States […] He is now Professor-at-large at Cornell University and member of “The Elders” at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, a group created at the initiative of Nelson Mandela. [364][365] Reporters without Borders notes that the goal of these directives is to essentially "put the Turkish media at the service of the government and its war goals. ", "EMEP: Fraternity of peoples is bombed in Afrin", "Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria", "Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria Read Full Article Here Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria", "Meclis'te Afrin gerilimi: 2 HDP'li vekil yaralandı", "Agos Editor-In-Chief considers Armenian Patriarchate's statement in current nationalist atmosphere in Turkey understandable", "Fear, Silence Weigh on Turkey's Armenians after Failed Coup", "Istanbul Greek Orthodox Patriarch lends support to Turkey's 'Operation Olive Branch' in Syria's Afrin", "Δημοσίευμα της Χουριέτ για στήριξη Βαρθολομαίου σε Ερντογάν για την επιχείρηση στο Αφρίν", "Επιστολή στήριξης του Οικουμενικού Πατριάρχη Βαρθολομαίου στον Ερντογάν για την επιχείρηση στο Αφρίν", "Syria war: Turkey arrests hundreds for criticising Afrin offensive", "Doctors Arrested as Turkish Crackdown Widens on Dissent", "Medical association to lose Turkish tag over criticism of Syria campaign", "Turkey's president calls anti-war students "terrorists, "Boğaziçi Üniversitesinden 'Afrin lokumu' açıklaması", "US is the enemy for Turkey. It was reported that Turkish-led forces quickly breached its defenses and captured it in an hour. According to an Iranian official, Tehran has warned Ankara that "many parties might want to see Turkey stuck in a quagmire" and has advised that Turkey "try to contain this adventure". [119], The DFNS forces include the Syrian Democratic Forces (with the Kurdish-led Democratic Union Party’s,[120] armed wing the People's Protection Units (YPG), Afrin Region regional defense[121] and police forces. [185], Later on 20 February, pro-Syrian government militias calling themselves the "Popular Forces" entered YPG-held Afrin. "[363], Turkish government ministers ordered the Turkish press to follow a 15-point list of "expectations" for reporting on the conflict, which included not mentioning attacks on civilians or protests against the operation, relying on Turkish government statements and ignoring statements by "domestic arms of the PKK", which include the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), ignoring any protests against the Afrin operation, and keeping in mind "national interest" and "patriotic journalism". [206] Between 8 and 9 March, the Turkish Army, alongside the TFSA, captured Jandairis[207] and the Afrin Dam,[208][209] reaching the outskirts of Afrin on 10 March. [220] By Mid March, civilians started arriving in the city, organising themselves as human shields in anticipation of the attack[211] while another 2000 civilians fled the city, in advance of the Turkish troops. [305] On the same day, a video surfaced that showed Turkish backed rebels executing a civilian driving a farm tractor. [334], According to a poll by pro-Turkish government A&G company, 89% of Turkish citizens see the PYD as a threat.[335]. [280], Various casualty estimates were made during the operation. ", "Interim governing council formed to tackle 'disaster' in Afrin after Turkish-backed offensive", "Interim local council established in Syria's Afrin", "Interim local council established in Syria's Afrin - World News", "In Syria, It's Either Reconciliation or Annexation", "Hidden explosives stunt movement, frighten Afrin residents two months into pro-Turkish rule", "Syria's Afrin rebuilds, welcoming back displaced citizens", "Seizing lands from Afrin's displaced Kurds, Turkish-backed militias offer houses to East Ghouta families", "Kurds promise guerrilla war as Turkey-backed forces take Afrin city centre", "Saleh Moslem: Guerrilla warfare begins in Afrin", "Syrian Kurdish forces threaten families of Turkey's allies in Afrin – Ahval", "YPG will target any group working with Turkish army in Afrin", "Car bomb explodes in Jarabulus city, Aleppo", "Twin explosions mark new tensions in Afrin", "YPG continues attacks on Turkish army and rebels in Afrin", "After 54 Days of Controlling the Area, Turkish Warplanes Bomb North of Afrin, In Conjunction with Ground Shelling Accompanies A Direct Confrontation Between the Kurdish And Turkish Forces • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights", "YPG assassinated high ranking FSA commander in Afrin", "Explosion in Afrin city center kills three", "YPG claims it killed rebel commander, 18 fighters in Afrin", "YPG's insurgent campaign edges closer to Afrin rebels, civilians with deadly attack", "Turkey faces growing Kurdish insurgency in Syria's Afrin", "Turkey-backed Syrian rebels launch attack into Kurdish-held area", "Turkish Army cancels offensive in northern Aleppo amid safe zone talks with Russia: reports", HRE: 7 Turkish soldiers eliminated in Afrin, "Bomb blast kills 40 people in Syria's Afrin: Turkey", "Fuel truck bomb kills more than 40 in northern Syria", "Fuel truck bomb blast kills dozens in Syria's Afrin: Turkey", "Syria war: Dozens killed in truck bomb attack at Afrin market", "Attack in Syria Town Run by Turkish-Backed Fighters Kills 40", "Turkey opens gate with neighboring Syria's Afrin: trade minister", "SMART News Agency - Clashes erupt between National Army and al-Sharqiya Martyrs Brigade in Afrin, killing and injuring members on both sides, according to military source", "Rebel commander killed by Turkish military in northern Syria", "Afrin : Renegade rebels surrender to Turkish military", "Scores of rebels surrender to Turkish Army after fierce clashes in Aleppo", "Clashes between pro-Turkish rebel factions kill 25 in Syria's Afrin", "Turkish offensive displaces 167,000 in Syria's Afrin: UN", "U.N. says Turkish offensive reportedly displaces 5,000", "Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Mark Lowcock: Statement to the Security Council on the humanitarian situation in Syria (27 March 2018)", "Turkey moves to take key town in Afrin operation", "The Latest: UN delays vote on 30-day Syria cease-fire", "Rights group: Turkey not avoiding civilians in Syria strikes", "Deadly airstrikes continue near Damascus as death toll surpasses 400", "Syria: Civilian Deaths in Turkish Attacks May Be Unlawful", "Ankara Faces Mounting Pressure Over Syria Operation", "Syria: 'Unlawful' civilian deaths in Afrin condemned as Assad forces raise stakes in Kurdish-Turkey conflict", "Turkish forces shell convoy headed to Syria's Afrin region", "Turkey/Syria: Border Guards Shoot, Block Fleeing Syrians", "Turkey denies report border guards shot at fleeing Syrians", "Fighting in northwest Syria is in a tailspin, as Turkish forces shoot at fleeing civilians and mutilate US-backed forces", "Video purportedly shows Turkish soldiers beat Kurdish villager in Afrin – Turkey Purge", "U.S.-backed SDF warns Turkey against widening attack", "Turkish army hit school, water plant in Syria's Afrin: Syrian Kurdish YPG", "Turkey accused of killing 16 in hospital attack", "Pregnant women among dead as Turkish strike hits hospital in Syria's Afrin", "Tragedy in Afrin and Ghouta continues, as Turkey denies striking hospital", https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/free-syrian-army-group-captures-afrin-city-180318081430817.html, "Turkey never used chemical weapons in Syria: Diplomatic sources", "The Latest: Syrian leaflets urge Ghouta residents to leave", "Factions of the 'Olive Branch' Operation carry out field executions in the countryside of Afrin, killing 7 persons including women", "Turkish bombardment kills 13 in Syria's Afrin: YPG, monitor", "The Latest: 7 killed in shelling of Syrian government areas", "Syria: Outrage over 'mutilated' female Kurdish fighter", "Bias and hypocrisy in 'Olive Branch' coverage", "US-backed YPG terrorists kidnap children to fight against Turkish military", "YPG refutes HRW allegations on recruitment of child soldiers", "Press briefing notes on the situation in Afrin, Syria", "UN says civilians trapped, used as 'human shields' in Afrin", Civilians used as ‘human shields’ by YPG in Afrin, says UN, "Reports of Turkish Attacks on Kurdish Positions After Kilis Mosque Attack", "Aftermath of rocket attack on Turkey border town of Kilis", "In call, Trump issues stern warning to Turkey over Syria operation", "2 Rockets Launched on Kilis, Killing 2 People in Mosque", "Ancient Syrian temple damaged in Turkish raids against Kurds", "Syrian government says Turkish shelling damaged ancient temple", "Satellite Images of Afrin Identifies Massive Damage to Ancient Temple", "Famed Syria temple blown to pieces in Turkey assault", "Turkish Forces Seize Syrian City of Afrin", "Turkish airstrikes 'damaged ancient Christian site' in Syria", "No ancient site, church, monastery in Afrin targeted in Turkish airstrike so far: Foreign Ministry", "Pro-government mob attacks pro-Kurdish HDP office in Istanbul", "Turkish religious authority calls for 'conquest' sermon in support of military", "In Turkey, soaring support for Syrian offensive and rising anti-Americanism", "Ünlü araştırmacı Adil Gür: Zeytin Dalı harekatına destek yüzde 90", "Opposition MHP supports Afrin operation", "Turkey's opposition parties lend support to Afrin operation", "Öncü Gençlik'ten Afrin Operasyonu açıklaması: Vatan Savaşı'nda zafer taarruzudur", "HDP condemns Turkey's Afrin invasion as assault on 'Kurdish freedom, "TKP'den 'Afrin' açıklaması: Çekin Suriye'den elinizi! Lama Fakih, the deputy Middle East director at HRW, stated: "It appears that vulnerable civilians are facing displacement and death because of the way Turkey's latest offensive is being conducted. [158], On 28 January, pro-Turkish forces achieved their first major victory by capturing the strategic Barsaya mountain[160][161] after several previous attacks on the mountain since 22 January failed[162] due to Kurdish resistance. [356] Erdoğan stated that the association will lose it "Turkish" tag in its official name and clarified that the organization "will not be able to use the notion of Turkishness, nor the name Turkey." See more of Lakhdar Rahim on Facebook. Kurds in Afrin said this was an attempt to humiliate suspected PKK members. [81] On 6 February 2018, Mehmet Arslan, co-leader of the Democratic Regions Party, has been arrested for criticizing the operation. [245] These efforts meant that Afrin city had been stabilized to some degree by May, with displaced civilians returning and municipal services resuming. [75] Turkey later denied usage of chemicals, calling the accusations "baseless". The YPG has denied being affiliated with this group,[252] which has been active all over Turkish-held Syria. Since 2004, he has been Special Adviser to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Most prominently, his criticism of Ahmed Chalabi has led to Chalabi's claim that Brahimi is an Arab nationalist who should have no role in determining the future of Iraq. Join Facebook to connect with Rahim Lakhdar and others you may know. [110] The Turkish Deputy PM Bekir Bozdağ said that Turkey is requesting Muslim's extradition. [234], Soon after Afrin city had been captured, Turkey began to consolidate its control over the entire district through a number of policies. » Épisodes 1 à 39 Naëlle Ebrardt 547 jours Bachelor 6 « J'ai trop de fierté en amour. He added: "we won't give these terrorist youth the right to study at these universities. [148][149], The Turkish General Staff made the announcement in a statement published on its website, saying the objective of the mission is to "establish security and stability on our borders and region, to eliminate terrorists of PKK/KCK/PYD-YPG and ISIL. Log In. Also, an investigation has been launched against our speaker. It is not possible for us to allow this. [187] President Erdoğan said that the militias were repelled by Turkish artillery, adding that the convoy consisted of "terrorists" who acted independently. [326], On 23 March 2018 reports stated that Turkish airstrikes destroyed many important archaeological buildings including the Julianus Church, which is one of the oldest Christian churches in the world, in the Brad ancient Christian heritage site near Afrin, which has been in UNESCO's world heritage list since 2011. [281], Turkey stated that 4,612 SDF fighters were killed, wounded or captured. [217][218], By then, SDF troops had moved into Afrin from other areas, including retreating troops from the unsuccessful defence of Jinderes, and dozens of international volunteers,[219] reinforcing the troop numbers there, and preparing defences. The president, one of the two vice-presidents, and the prime minister are all from the council. [303], On 16 February, YPG forces stated that Turkey was using chemical gas attacks that wounded several people in Afrin. "[357], On 19 March, a group of at least seven students at Boğaziçi University conducted an anti-war protest to which Erdoğan responded by saying that the students were "terrorists" and "communist, traitor youth". 03 Oct. ISPI Forum - The Future of Multilateralism. Lakhdar Brahimi, (born January 1, 1934, Algeria), Algerian diplomat whose lengthy career included peacemaking efforts in Lebanon, South Africa, Haiti, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.. Brahimi was educated in both France and his native Algeria (which was under French rule at the time of his birth). '"[7] Brahimi announced his resignation, resulting from "great difficulties and frustration experienced during his assignment in Iraq", at the UN in New York on 12 June. "[188], Ex-PYD co-chair Salih Muslim Muhammad meanwhile denied any political agreement with the Syrian government, stating the agreement about Afrin was purely military. In course of the subsequent clashes on 4 May 2019, pro-Turkish troops initially captured a few villages, but were pushed back by SDF and Syrian government counter-attacks. "I asked him why he didn't say that publicly (and) he said, 'I am the U.N. envoy to Iraq, how can I admit to failure? or. Reality … Lakhdar Brahimi is a former Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs with wide experience in international diplomacy. [227], On 17 March, Turkish and TFSA forces started their ground attack on the city. [284] Between 50,000 and 70,000 civilians still remained in Afrin city. [296] More videos on social media then emerged, including one such video that showed Turkish soldiers beating a Kurdish civilian while questioning him. » Épisodes 1 à 39 Naëlle Ebrardt 547 jours Bachelor 6 « J'ai trop de fierté en amour. In 1956, two years after Algeria’s war of independence broke out, Lakhdar Brahimi left … [122] There have been reports that some of the YPG fighters in Afrin were child soldiers. Most Popular #154919. Lakhdar Brahimi. The latter had also acquired anti-tank guided missiles. [352][353][354], The Turkish Medical Association stated that the war could end in large-scale human tragedy to which Erdoğan responded by calling the doctors of the association "filth", "agents of imperialism", and "terrorist lovers". SOHR reported that Turkish airstrikes in the village of Jamaa killed 17 pro-government fighters overnight. Not Now. The news division stated: "After this sad mistake, our speaker has immediately been withdrawn from the air, and a new friend was assigned to replace her. Mattis acknowledged that Turkey has "legitimate security concerns" regarding PKK, and said Turkey had consulted the United States prior to launching the offensive.

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